बढ़ते शहरीकरण से प्रदूषण का खतरा, प्रदूषण कम करने के लिए वैकल्पिक निर्माण सामग्री उपयोग करने का सुझाव



बिल्डिंग के निर्माण के कारण चेन्नई संचयी रूप से 230 मिलियन टन CO2 का उत्सर्जन करेगा।

CO2 उत्सर्जन को कैसे कम करें?

शोध दल ने कार्बन उत्सर्जन को कम करने के लिए तीन उपाय सुझाए:

1.      परंपरागत सीमेंट को लो-कार्बन सीमेंट से बदलें

2.      भविष्य के निर्माण के लिए विध्वंस अपशिष्ट का पुन: उपयोग

3.      संचालन भवनों की ऊर्जा आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने के लिए नवीकरणीय संसाधनों पर स्विच करना।

शोधकर्ताओं ने पाया कि उत्सर्जन को कम करने में सबसे बड़ा योगदान ऊर्जा स्रोतों में परिवर्तन का था। किसी भवन की परिचालन ऊर्जा आवश्यकताओं की 50% आपूर्ति के लिए स्वच्छ ऊर्जा स्रोतों के उपयोग से 2019 और 2040 के बीच की अवधि में 115 मिलियन टन तक के संचयी CO2 उत्सर्जन में तदनुरूपी कमी होने की भी संभावना थी। पारंपरिक सीमेंट को कम कार्बन से बदलना उत्सर्जन को कम करने में सीमेंट का प्रभाव कम था।


IIT Madras researchers highlight extensive CO2 emissions due to buildings alone over the next two decades

The researchers predict that Chennai would emit 230 million tonnes of CO2 by 2040 due to buildings, with around 75% of energy consumed for operation of buildings


CHENNAI, 5th January 2023: Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) researchers predict that Chennai could cumulatively emit 231.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (Co2) by 2040 from the construction and operations of buildings alone owing to rapid urbanisation.

The researchers suggest that switching to renewable s ources of energy for operational requirements of buildings would be a key driver in reducing emissions from Chennai.


The study was conducted by a team of researchers from the Centre for Technologies for Low Carbon and Lean Construction, IIT Madras, and the Indo-German Centre for Sustainability (IGCS) IIT Madras, comprising Prof. Ashwin Mahalingam, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, and Mr. Pokhraj Nayak, former student, IIT Madras

Explaining the significance of this study, Prof. Ashwin Mahalingam, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, said,

 “In order to achieve our emissions targets, we need to benchmark what our ‘business as usual’ emissions are likely to be in future and work backwards. This study represents a step in trying to quantitatively address this problem

Rapid urbanization is likely to lead to an increase in built stock across the country. In India, the building industry is estimated to account for around a quarter of total CO2 emissions. This is mainly due to the emissions that arise out of production of raw materials (such as cement & steel), their transportation to construction sites, energy used during construction and most importantly, the energy used during operation of buildings.

IIT Madras researchers have conducted a quantitative study to address the issue of increasing CO2 emissions due to the construction of buildings.

The researchers undertook the study in three phases:

  1. The team leveraged geo-spatial modelling techniques to simulate how Chennai would look in 2040.
  2. The researchers used Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) techniques to understand the extent of carbon emissions that Chennai would accrue due to urbanisation.
  3. The team developed several scenarios where alternative building materials and energy sources are used in Chennai’s development to evaluate technologies that could lead to the largest reduction in emissions.



For the first phase of the study, the researchers used geo-spatial land models developed by The Nature Conservancy – a global environmental non-profit organisation and used simulation techniques to develop a futuristic map of Chennai in 2040 that takes into account past trends as well as future constraints

The model developed by IIT Madras researchers showed an increase in urban built-up areas accompanied by a decrease in water and wetlands. The graph below shows the change in land classes over a period between 2019 and 2040.

Burgeoning Carbon Emissions

The research team, using Life Cycle Analysis of construction activities, has estimated the CO2

released during demolitionconstruction (as a result of transportation of materials and construction activities), and operation of buildings.  

The calculations showed that Chennai would cumulatively emit 231 Million Tonnes of CO2 due to energy consumed by buildings during their construction and operations.

How to reduce the CO2 emissions?

The research team suggested three measures to reduce carbon emissions:

  1. Replace traditional cement with low-carbon cement
  2. Reuse of demolition waste for future construction
  3. Switching to renewable resources to meet the energy requirements of operating buildings.

The researchers found that the single largest contributor to reducing emissions was the change in energy sources. The use of clean energy sources to supply 50% of a building’s operational energy needs was also likely to result in a corresponding reduction in cumulative CO2 emissions of up to 115 Million tonnes, in the period between 2019 and 2040.  Replacing traditional cement with low carbon cement had a lower impact in reducing emissions.


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